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重庆大学经济学教授,重庆市首席专家(经济学),长江学者特聘教授。诺丁汉大学当代中国学学院创建院长,经济学教授,著名华裔经济学家,复旦大学和西安交通大学特聘讲座教授,全英中国专业团体联和会副主席,联合国开发计划署和世界银行经济顾问, 到过20个亚非欧国家工作。

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金辰勇世行行长候选人有感  

2012-04-11 02:19:22|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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 今年3月23日,奥巴马总统提名美籍韩国人金辰勇(金墉,Jim Yong Kim)为世界银行行长候选人,颇有感慨。
   韩国人的自豪和骄傲
   金墉5岁时随同父母一起到美国Iowa州的一个小镇定居。父亲是牙科医生,母亲是哲学博士。1959年出生在韩国的金墉回忆说,50年代的韩国非常贫穷,他的父母都是乡下逃到首尔的难民,当时韩国的文盲率高达90%,情况可能和中国的50年代不分上下。到了2011年,韩国已经成为发达国家,人均GDP达到2万5千美元,中国人均GDP是5700美元。
   教育,改变了韩国,也改变了离开韩国的移民和他们的后代
   金墉就是很好的例子。1982年布朗大学本科毕业,1993年哈佛大学博士毕业。1993年到2009年,在哈佛大学从讲师、教授到医学院公共医疗卫生系主任。2009年9月当选为美国第一个亚裔常春藤大学(达特茅斯学院)校长,接过一个负债35亿美元,但具有240年历史的世界著名大学的担子,对他来讲,是一个机会,也是一个挑战。
   金墉的最大贡献,不是因为他是名牌大学校长,也不是因为他是哈佛大学的著名教授,而是他有一段其他著名大学校长和教授所没有的发展中国家的工作经验。他1987-2003年间,也就是在他还在读书的时候,就和其他人成立了Partners in Health (PIH) 这样一个面对非洲国家的民间组织,致力于传染病,特别是艾滋病,有效、低成本和大规模的治疗体制创新和推广工作。
   他2003-2006担任世界卫生组织公共医疗和艾滋病防治的部门主任,为世界控制和防治艾滋病和其它传染病作出杰出贡献。
   世界银行的使命是扶贫和发展,金墉不是经济学家,但是他的工作经历和成就,却非常合适世界银行行长的职位。
   潘基文和金墉给中国教育的启示是什么?
   韩国已经出了联合国秘书长潘基文,如果金墉成功当选世行行长,对韩国人的影响是巨大的,对中国人的影响也是巨大的。
   中国人必须开始认真考虑,我们的教育体制,干部体制,能不能也培养出几个像潘基文和金墉这样的人才呢?
   中国大学,过度的强调个人的发展,读死书,死读书,却没有教育学生一种宽广的胸怀,立志为这个世界做点不属于自己的东西。大学教育过于行政化,思想教育过于形式化,不利培养高素质和宏大世界观的杰出人才和科学家。相比之下,美国大学不讲究形式,却不忘记培养学生的超常思维和世界观。
   我专门阅读了金墉在达特茅斯的校长就职讲话(英文全文见附件2),受益匪浅。他对学生提出4点要求, 并把这4点要求,简化成4个带P的英语单词,颇受启发。
   这4个要求的中文意思是:(1)找到你的兴趣(find your passion)。(2)持之以恒,追求真理 (be persistent in achieving mastery)。(3)用最合适你自己的方法去学习、去追求知识 (pursue knowledge in the way that works best for you)。(4)大胆的去想象能够解决地球的问题,因为除了你,世界没有他人更会愿意解决这些问题 (embrace the planet’s problems, because no one will be more prepared to fix them than you)。
   他还鼓励学生说,‘用你最大的本事去干一番事业,要有雄心壮志,积极主动的去改变世界。如果你是工程师,直接对着气候变化问题,给世界找出可持续发展的答案。如果你是音乐家,那就演奏出,或者写出,真正能够感人的乐章。如果你是足球队员,那就打败哈佛大学!请吧!就在今年实现!’(Do something great with all you’ve got. Be ambitious. Aspire to change the world. If you’re an engineer – take on climate change and move us toward a more sustainable future. If you’re a musician – play or write something that truly moves people. And if you play football – beat Harvard! Please! This year!)。
   金墉的个人情况
   金墉已经结婚,生了两个儿子,大的2000年出生,小的2009年出生。属于高龄生子,事业非常成功的男人,曾经被《时代杂志》评为世界最有影响力的100人之一。
   他和我同年,博士比我还晚4年毕业。但是,他的成就,却是我望尘莫及的。
   我简单在这里介绍金墉,一方面是觉得他有许多可以学习的地方,另方面,希望他的经历和精神,能够影响中国年轻一代的大学生。说不定,中国也可以培养出许许多多的金墉和潘基文。到那时,中国人才可以让世界其它国家的人感到骄傲和佩服。
   下面附上两篇文章。第一篇是《财经》记者访问金墉的谈话,第二篇是金墉在达特茅斯学院的校长就职演说英文全文,希望我的年轻粉丝能够得到启发和帮助。
 
 
   附件1:金辰勇(金墉)的世行观——专访世界银行行长候选人金辰勇
   http://comments.caijing.com.cn/2012-04-10/111806881.html
   来自《财经》杂志 2012年04月10日。
   世界银行的最大挑战与其使命是完全吻合的
   2012年3月31日下午2点15分,美国提名的世界银行行长候选人金辰勇面带微笑,走进上海美国领事馆的会客厅,接受《财经》杂志记者的独家专访。金辰勇此行的目的既是为了向中国阐述其未来的施政设想,更是为了寻求中国的支持。
   就在一个月前,世界银行行长遴选史上第一次出现了竞争者。拉美和非洲的部分发展中国家分别推选来自哥伦比亚的何塞·安东尼奥·奥坎波和来自尼日利亚的恩戈齐·奥孔乔-伊韦拉竞争下一任世界银行行长职位。何塞·安东尼奥·奥坎波曾任联合国副秘书长、哥伦比亚财政和公共信贷部部长,现为美国哥伦比亚大学教授,而恩戈齐·奥孔乔-伊韦拉曾任世界银行常务副行长,现为尼日利亚经济统筹和财政部部长。相比这两位候选人,金辰勇缺少丰富的金融工作经验,但胜在对发展问题有深刻的体会和见解,而这也是世界银行的首要任务。
   由于美国是世界银行内唯一握有否决权的国家,此次竞选未必能打破美国人长期垄断世界银行行长职位的格局。但强有力竞争者的出现无疑是南北国家经济实力消长的又一反应。金融危机后,新兴市场国家日益成为世界经济的重要引擎。2011年底,包括新兴市场在内的所有发展中国家经济规模总量与发达国家的相当,几乎各占全球GDP的一半。而在2010年世界银行投票权改革后,南北国家的份额对比也已调整为47.19%对52.81%。金辰勇在接受《财经》记者专访时也多次表示,他承诺在当选后,进一步增强发展中国家在世界银行内部的发言权。
   除了平衡南北国家利益,金辰勇面临的另一大挑战是改革世界银行,使其变得更透明、更有效率。金辰勇表示他将继续佐利克启动的透明化措施,并坚持将发展经济和消除贫困作为世界银行的首要任务。他继而表示,他将专注投资于人本身的包容性发展(inclusive development),通过人的发展为经济发展铺平道路。
   金辰勇在接受专访时并没有提出任何具体的政策构想。作为一个候选人,他认为这一切为时尚早。但他数度表示,他父母及本人的生活工作经历,使他对发展中国家的可能性充满了不可动摇的乐观,他相信所有国家都能踏上经济增长和发展之路。
   ——编者
   竞选之路
   《财经》:你能告诉我们奥巴马总统是如何找到你的吗?你当时的第一反应是什么?
   金辰勇:打电话给我的不是奥巴马总统本人,而是财政部长盖特纳。我的第一反应是惊讶。世界银行是世界上最重要的机构之一,我强烈感觉到,与之相比我个人十分渺小。
   世界银行聚焦发展经济和消除贫困,这也是我毕生孜孜以求的两个重要议题——我致力于针对人本身的投资,以求帮助他们做好准备、踏上成长之路。
   父母的经历,以及我个人韩裔美国人的身份,使我相信经济增长和发展对人类幸福的重要性,这一点深入骨髓。我出生在一个发展中国家。在我出生的1959年,韩国相当穷困,1964年我离开了那里。成年后,我长期在发展中国家工作,花费大量时间了解贫穷国家民众的生活。过去的经历使我理解到,所有发展中国家,即便是那些最贫穷的国家,都能够走上增长之路。
   有机会能领导世界银行这个机构当然是激动人心的。我的经验使我具备成为一个世界银行干练领导者的能力。我想强调,我对世界上最贫穷国家的可能性都怀有无可动摇的乐观信心。没有人能在1959年设想韩国今天的样子;许多人也曾说非洲无法发展,但今天我们看到了非洲的大发展。这一乐观主义将支撑我,并帮助我成为下一任世界银行行长。
   我告诉奥巴马总统,如果他要我成为世界银行行长候选人,我保证我做好了准备。
   当奥巴马总统要求你去做这么重要的事情时,你除了说“是”,没有其他选择。
   《财经》:你是一位公共卫生专家,但世界银行终究是一个金融机构,缺乏金融背景是否会影响你的选举?来自尼日利亚的恩戈齐·奥孔乔-伊韦拉既是该国经济统筹和财政部部长,也有在世界银行工作的经验。你将如何说服其他国家,你是一个更好的选择?
   金辰勇:我充分尊重其他候选人。能参加有史以来第一次以能力为评价标准、透明而开放的世行行长选举,我倍感骄傲。
   就个人的选举而言,我想简单地介绍下我做过的事情,以及我是一个怎么样的人。我大半辈子都在发展中国家工作,作为一名医生,我十分了解公共卫生事务;作为一个人类学家,我在很多年里都从世界上最贫穷国家的角度出发去理解世界;作为一个教育者,我清楚地知道帮助年轻人找到工作的重要性——年轻人找不到工作是个世界性难题,确保他们接受高质量的教育是解决这一问题的重要方法。因此,可以说,我是带着许多专业能力参加这次选举的。
   此外,世界银行是一个成长中的知识机构,我具有管理知识机构的丰富经验。我也处理过财务问题,我任职的达特茅斯学院一度负债35亿美元,我必须直接处理这些债务。
   不过,更重要的一点是,世界十分复杂,任何单一专业背景都无法为我们提供足够的知识以实现发展经济和消除贫困的任务。
   平衡南北利益
   《财经》:你在《金融时报》上撰文呼吁建设一个更具有包容性的世界银行,并确保发展中国家在其中的话语权。如果你当选,将如何在具体政策中体现发展中国家的话语权?
   金辰勇:我承诺,发展中国家将在世界银行中发出更强有力的声音。事实上,最贫穷国家的声音近来正在逐步提升,这让人感到鼓舞。
   因为我还不是世界银行行长,所以无法就任何政策作出具体承诺。但我的个人经历表明,我十分了解发展中国家民众的生活,对其充满深刻的同情。
   《财经》:你说你对发展中国家民众的贫困生活“充满同情”。在你的倾听之旅中,是否有人会认为,这意味着你是个外人,而他们需要一个自己人来解决自己的问题?
   金辰勇:“同情心”(sympathy)确实是个错误的字眼,正确的字眼应该是“同理心”(empathy)。虽然我在美国度过大部分人生,但我也在发展中国家住过多年,了解在那里生活是什么感觉。
   我母亲是一个难民,为了生存不得不从首尔徒步走到釜山,我的父亲是朝鲜难民,17岁逃离朝鲜后再也没见过他的家人。我出生在韩国,知道生活在贫穷中的感觉。
   但也请理解,我父母的经历灌输给我的观念,恰恰是对贫穷国家可能性的乐观。
   因此,我怀有的不是作为一个美国人对发展中国家持有的“同情心”——这是最背离事实的描述。相反地,作为一个亲眼见证了经济发展、脱离了贫困的人,我想进入世界银行,并告诉大家“人人皆有可能”。
   《财经》:但你终究是美国提名的候选人,当发展中国家和发达国家利益发生冲突时,你将如何确保各方利益?
   金辰勇:我正在进行倾听之旅。听到的越多,越发确信发展中国家和发达国家的利益主要围绕在经济增长和消除贫困两个议题上,这也是世界银行最重要的两个任务。我认为世界各国在这两个议题上有重大的共同利益,也有许多共识。毕竟如果所有国家都能走上增长之路,消除贫困,那么所有人都能从中受益。
   世界银行已经就什么是比较好的增长道路进行了大量调查研究,有效利用研究提供的证据能帮助我们作出同时为发达国家和发展中国家理解的决定。
   我是医生,也是人类学家。身为医生,我们坚持证据——建议使用某个方案而非另一个的数据——是最重要的,这是我接受的训练,也是毕生追求全球发展时遵循的路径。身为人类学家,我受到的训练教会我从穷国的角度出发看待事情,这些国家的民众比其他任何人都更需要世界银行,这是我的背景,也是我想给世界银行行长职位带去的变化。
   《财经》:你就任后会再度调整各国的投票权份额以提高发展中国家的声音吗?或者是否会在世界银行中引入更多来自发展中国家的中高级雇员?
   金辰勇:现在讨论任何政策都太早,我不会太早讨论政策。
   但我也知道,最近投票权份额已经做了调整,发展中国家声音有所上升,这是一个非常正面的进展。我正在进行倾听之旅,也不方便对世界银行人事安排发表意见。
   只能说,以我在发展中国家出生和工作的背景,我希望保证发展中国家在世界银行中获得更大话语权的承诺是清楚的。
   投资于人
   《财经》:你刚才说作为一个候选人讨论具体政策言之尚早。那么能否请你谈一下对当选后工作重点的设想?
   金辰勇:如果说有哪个领域特别吸引我,那就是包容性发展(inclusive development)。我一生参与的所有项目都投资于人本身。
   我确信,不是任何想法(idea),或者任何理论(theory),而是人类,让发展成为了可能。在非洲参与艾滋病治疗项目期间,我们向世界展示(对人的投资)可以带来哪些变化,变化可以有多大的规模——500万非洲人得到了治疗。这么做,不仅改善了患者的健康,还为非洲经济发展提供了帮助。如果患者得不到治疗,部分劳动力人口死于艾滋病,那么人们不可能看到非洲过去几年里的经济增长。
   因此,我的焦点始终将是投资于人本身的包容性发展,只有这样才能为经济发展铺平道路。
   《财经》:世界银行向发展中国家提供贷款帮助时,是否会继续以推进社会、政治改革为前提?
   金辰勇:发展中国家对于自己应走上什么样的发展道路有十分清晰的想法,非洲国家和中国对自己选择的道路都充满信心。
   我认为全世界在善治(good governance)和透明度问题上有非常高的共识,此二者能够帮助国家走上增长道路。但无论如何,我想强调,我不会有任何先入为主的理念或想法,也不会把任何理论或意识形态带到世行行长这个职位上。
   《财经》:作为最大的发展中国家,中国过去从世界银行的贷款中受益匪浅,而现在中国成为了世界银行资金的重要提供者。当中国发展到今天这个阶段后,中国和世界银行应当以什么样的方式展开合作?
   金辰勇:相比世界银行与其他任何国家的关系而言,其与中国的关系是最富有成效的。二者合作取得了巨大的成功。
   未来,中国无疑将扮演一个更重要的角色。中国已经成功帮助许多民众脱离了贫困,脱贫人口数量远超其他国家。我认为,世界银行学习中国经验,并将之推广到世界各地是非常重要的。此外,中国也变得十分外向。
   例如,本周日(4月1日),中国卫生部国际合作司司长任明辉将拜访达特茅斯学院。达特茅斯学院是世界上研究健康管理体系的顶级机构,任明辉先生此行的目的是启动双方数据交换项目,并推进合作。中国卫生部和达特茅斯学院间这种互相学习的模式可以被不断重复。
   世界银行从中国和世界其他国家汲取了许多经验,也将继续为中国和世界提供洞见、先例和数据,这也会帮助中国在经济发展的道路上更顺畅地前行。
   《财经》:你将采取哪些措施来增强世界银行的透明度?
   金辰勇:大家都认同透明化有利于所有组织。佐利克行长最近采取了一些与透明化相关的措施,向外部分析人士开放世界银行数据库是其中最重要的一个举措。
   我是美国常春藤大学联盟成员达特茅斯学院的院长。身为院长,我认识到,我们身处一个充满数据的时代,而这些数据应该向公众开放,供人们检验。佐利克行长开放数据库迈出了透明化的第一步。
   我希望世界银行未来能继续开放更多数据,供来自发达国家和发展中国家的研究人员使用,以便他们理解世界银行在历次成功和失败中获得的最重要的经验、教训。这也将是我当选后要实践的承诺。
   《财经》:如果当选,你认为什么将是你面临的最大挑战?
   金辰勇:我想世界银行的最大挑战与其使命是完全吻合的。从个人角度而言,帮助世界上的每一位公民在地球村内参与经济增长和发展,感受增长过程,是我们面临的最大挑战。从整个社会的角度出发,最大的挑战则是帮助每一个国家走上中韩两国曾经走过的发展之路。
   世界上最大的问题,恰好是当初世界银行成立时试图解决的问题。如果有机会领导世界银行,我可以将我的工作经历与为同样目的设立的机构运作合二为一,那真是美梦成真的一刻。
   
   附件2:Remarks and Speeches
   http://www.dartmouth.edu/~president/inauguration/speeches/kim.html
   
   Passion and Practicality – Dartmouth and the Liberating Arts
 
   President Jim Yong Kim(金墉), Inaugural Address
   Full Transcript of Speech
   Members of the Board, faculty, family, friends, students and staff, thank you for that kind welcome. I stand before you heartened by your warmth and kindness. I’m especially grateful to friends and family who have traveled from afar to be here. Your presence today means more to me than you can know.
   Chairman of the Board Ed Haldeman, your integrity, decency and warmth are a large part of why I came to Dartmouth. How proud you’ve made us all by answering the call of service and taking the helm of mortgage giant Freddie Mac as it wrestles with the challenge of helping tens of millions of Americans realize the dream of home ownership.
   Two hundred and forty years ago, the Reverends Eleazar Wheelock and Samson Occom, a member of the Mohegan nation, worked to establish an institution that would not only train the intellect but enlarge the soul, preparing its graduates for lives of service to the truth as they understood it. Since President Wheelock, fifteen other presidents have carried forward, reimagined and reinvigorated that mission – each assuming the responsibility to “take care of this house” that is Dartmouth.
   President William Jewett Tucker did as much as anyone to transform this school from a small New Hampshire college to a leading national institution. He believed that higher education must include not just an intellectual dimension, but a moral one as well. President John Sloan Dickey more than a half-century later argued that a Dartmouth education must embrace what he described as “the dual pursuit of competence and conscience.”
   Jim Wright pursued the same mission during his forty years at Dartmouth. Indeed as professor of history, Dean of the Faculty, Provost and then President, Jim Wright has devoted a lifetime of extraordinary work to caring for this house and strengthening its physical, intellectual and moral foundations. His presidency made my presidency possible.
   President Wright’s tireless service to the College built on that of his predecessors: President Jim Freedman, who wrote so beautifully about the importance of a liberal arts education; and President David McLaughlin, whose vision made possible the expansion of the campus and gave birth to the Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center.
   All of these leaders served Dartmouth with diligence and skill. To follow in their footsteps is deeply humbling for me – the child of Korean immigrants from a small town in Iowa.
   Through nearly two-and-a-half centuries, Dartmouth has flourished, adapting itself to the changing educational needs of the country and the world. Yet there has always been constancy at its core – a clear sense of purpose that sets this College apart.
   What does that mean for us here today, as we mark the start of a new academic year . . . and as we approach Dartmouth’s 250th anniversary just ten years from now? What is the purpose of a Dartmouth education?
   If we did nothing else in this College but contribute to humankind’s understanding of itself and of the world – if we sought only to learn for the pure love of learning – our work would be amply justified.
   But like many of my predecessors, I believe that Dartmouth’s liberal arts education can also uniquely prepare its graduates to impact the world.
   And, the historical moment in which we live demands that your generation unite, as never before, learning with action, passion with practicality.
   Consider the challenges before us: the stresses on our natural environment — nearly 7 billion people living amidst growing inadequacies of food and water; the deepening chasm between rich and poor; the ravages of epidemic disease; the denial of human rights and basic freedoms to so many who thirst for them; and the need to inspire, provoke and energize humanity with art, literature and critical thought that resonate in a changing world.
   Your generation must dream, dream more ambitiously than any who have preceded you. But just to dream is not enough. You must deliver on the dream where previous generations have fallen short.
   In his inaugural address, President John Kemeny focused on the distance that can separate dreams from delivery—and the role of the College in bridging that divide.
   Kemeny argued that Dartmouth must train leaders who “will enlarge human knowledge . . . work in high office . . . guide great corporations to new service to society . . . [and] work to wipe out poverty and disease.” To the moral motivation to solve the problems of society, Kemeny explained that a Dartmouth education must also add the know-how to devise and implement practical solutions.
   Some might interpret this vision as emphasizing practical disciplines such as engineering or economics over the arts and humanities. But that view rests on an artificial division that Dartmouth has always rejected. There’s nothing more practical than the philosophical work of learning to be clear and coherent about our deepest values; nothing more practical than the artistic work of bringing shared values to compelling expression. Reading The Tempest, debating Aristotle’s ethics or choreographing a dance are supremely practical activities. They deepen our understanding of what has been and open our imagination to what yet could be. They provide the experiences of beauty and shared meaning which are central to building a more just world. Understanding what ennobles human life, and intensifying our capacity to experience it is the very purpose of a Dartmouth education.
   My own experience has instilled in me a belief in the transformative power of education, as it now falls to me to “take care of this house”. My path initially wound far from the place we stand today, but from the start it was influenced by the American Pragmatist philosopher John Dewey – born and raised here in Northern New England. Dewey’s thought reflects the practical and deeply generous character of this region.
   He argued that the best learning comes through active experience, and not through passive absorption of established doctrine…he believed that education works best when theory is united with action.
   In my own life, I’ve seen how adaptations of Dewey’s work can fuel transformations in surprising settings.
   I’ve worked in villages where less than 1-in-10 adults can read and write. But these communities had a deep appreciation for the importance of education in driving social change.
   Seeing Dewey’s ideas adapted to the lived experience of the poor, I witnessed the potential for education to be liberating in a way that calls to mind John Sloan Dickey’s notion of a Dartmouth education as an experience in the “liberating arts”: those forms of knowledge which, in Dickey’s words, “bring the best of the past to the service of the present,” while they “liberate the best in [us] into an expanding future.”
   Through 25 years of working to help improve health in some of the poorest communities in the world, what has become clear to me is that delivering on ambitious social goals requires more than principled individual action, more even than courageous social justice movements. It requires building and implementing systems that can deliver sustainable solutions.
   Over the years, I’ve studied the work of W. Edwards Deming, who took Dewey’s insights into new territory and enabled some of the greatest economic successes in modern history.
   Deming emphasized constant measurement of results and continuous improvement. But he believed that learning and innovation must be understood at their roots as a collective mission – one that requires trust among many members of an organization, the type of trust and mutual respect that I’ve found very much alive here at Dartmouth. Crucially, Deming then argued that this indispensable foundation of trust and shared commitment must be allied to a rigorous understanding of how complex systems work to produce desired results.
   Educators helping peasants in Latin America break the chains of poverty seem worlds apart from systems engineers in cutting-edge production facilities. Yet, I believe that they embody two sides of the educational mission set forth by my predecessors, a mission that in this historical moment is more vital than ever: on the one hand, the passionate commitment to making the world a better place; on the other, the practical understanding of complex systems required to deliver solutions on a global scale. Passion and practicality: Either without the other will be inadequate to tackle the challenges we face today.
   The need for both brings to mind lessons I learned about education as a boy growing up back in Iowa. My father was a dentist, and dentists are among the most practical people on earth. My mother is a theologian and philosopher. She was always trying to lift my sights to the higher things. This is what my dentist father and philosopher mother taught me: Keep your feet on the ground—but shoot for the stars.
   This historical moment requires a generation that unites the passion to transform the world with the intellectual capacity to tackle the most difficult scientific challenges; to apply sophisticated management strategies in new ways; to create art that resonates in a changing world; and to lead teams of people toward common goals. That is the generation that will deliver on our long-cherished dreams. That is your generation.
   The mission of Dartmouth College is precisely to prepare you for that task.
   But what does such an education look like in practice?
   The heart of this College has always been inspired teaching. This is the bedrock of our excellence.
   Plato in the academy, Maimonides in the synagogue, Thomas Aquinas in the cloister – all committed themselves to the same vital human endeavor to which this institution is devoted: teaching.
   Our faculty today are expanding interdisciplinary collaboration and supporting students’ learning in innovative ways. Great colleagues work together to produce great results, and they are supported by our generous alumni. Dartmouth is a community that never lets go of its graduates . . . and its graduates never let go of Dartmouth.
   Our legacy also shows that innovation and independence can thrive most richly when they build on a common intellectual foundation. One Dartmouth experience that I hear about again and again from alumni is the “Great Issues” course taught by President Dickey. Students explored critical questions as an entire class, creating a common vocabulary through which differences in views and values could be examined and understood - making possible far deeper dialogue among classmates.
   Let’s revive the “Great Issues” course to give today’s students a shared intellectual foundation for taking on the most challenging problems of our time.
   Dartmouth has maintained teaching as a paramount priority and that commitment must always be preserved. But teaching is not a one-way transmission of established knowledge. At its best, it’s a collaboration – transforming both student and teacher and advancing the boundaries of human knowledge. At Dartmouth, faculty have brought the complexity of their research to the classroom to strengthen students’ learning. In turn, professors have reformulated their research questions after being challenged by gifted students.
   We must support faculty research both for its intrinsic value and because without it teaching at Dartmouth College will suffer. Let me be clear: not only will we support research by our faculty, we also expect every Dartmouth student to engage in significant original scholarship during their time at the College. The discovery of new knowledge must be at the core of our collective mission.
   Dartmouth’s world-class professional schools – Tuck, Thayer and Dartmouth Medical School – provide the College with decisive strengths for that mission.
   Now let me speak for a moment directly to the great class of 2013. I hope you understand that I have very high expectations for you. And each of you is capable of exceeding even my highest expectations. You and I are starting our Dartmouth careers together. So, let me tell you very clearly four things I want each of you to do during your time here.
   Despite Frances Vernon's warnings about people who say this at your convocation, say it I must.
   Find your passion. Lots of people will glibly say this to you. Here’s what I mean. I’m not referring to passing fancies. The passion I want you to find takes work. It represents less an emotional sensation than an intellectual achievement. You won’t find it by sitting passively in the classroom or surfing the web. You have to work hard at finding something you can tackle with passion for a big chunk of your life and find meaning in it. That’s an active and an urgent task. You need to start it now.
   Number two, be persistent. Each one of you has the ability to achieve great things. But beyond a certain level of talent, the difference between those who achieve great things and those who don’t is usually not talent, it’s persistence.
   Malcolm Gladwell argues in his latest book that it takes at least 10,000 hours of practice to develop mastery of a skill – whether programming a computer, playing hockey or performing music.
   My mentor in clinical medicine used to tell me, quoting a 17th century philosopher, that all things excellent are difficult and rare.
   Understand that when you find your passion, the beginning will be frustrating precisely because all things great are difficult and rare. Optimism and persistence come from understanding that the hard work of mastery holds true for everyone.
   Number three, pursue knowledge seriously. I don’t mean take yourself seriously. I mean take seriously the importance of figuring out how you learn best.
   Some people learn best through direct dialogue with a faculty mentor; for others, collaborative work with a group of peers works best. Visual representations or mathematical formulas help some people master key concepts; for others, the flow of descriptive language brings clarity. Figure out what works best for you. And, be forewarned: If I meet you crossing the Green later this fall and ask you, ‘What works best for you when you’re trying to learn something?’ I expect a clear answer.
   FOURTH AND FINALLY, think big, in fact think about the whole planet. As John Sloan Dickey said so powerfully, embrace the world’s troubles as your own. You are exceptional people. You were admitted to the most selective class in Dartmouth’s history. You have a superb faculty here committed to teaching you. We are all here for you.
   Do something great with all you’ve got. Be ambitious. Aspire to change the world. If you’re an engineer – take on climate change and move us toward a more sustainable future. If you’re a musician – play or write something that truly moves people. And if you play football – beat Harvard! Please! This year!
   As an old teacher, I like to make things simple to remember. During your four years here, remember these four P’s. Find your passion, be persistent in achieving mastery, pursue knowledge in the way that works best for you, and embrace the planet’s problems, because no one will be more prepared to fix them than you.
   I’ve spent most of my adult life trying to tackle social problems around the world – but I came to Dartmouth because I’m convinced that those of you gathered here today will achieve far more than I ever could. Helping you do that is now my mission in life.
   And while the current economic environment creates challenges for institutions of higher learning, we should not – and will not – let it limit our aspirations.
   Since I joined the College, I’ve learned a lot about what makes this place so special. Certainly the setting is uniquely beautiful. The faculty and academic programs – both undergraduate and graduate – are superb. The history and tradition of the College animate every aspect of life here. But I don’t think any of those alone captures what truly makes Dartmouth what it is.
   The writer Jack Beatty, who taught in the English Department last fall, was one of many who shared with me their insights on Dartmouth. In an email to me this summer, he wrote:
   “I taught a senior writing class here last fall. I stress ‘senior’ because all the students had had four years of Dartmouth socialization. The class was built around collective critiques of student short stories. The students all wrote well, a few wonderfully. But what impressed me more than their talent was their decency. I feared hurt feelings, bruised egos, too-critical critiques. Instead, they managed the social miracle of being at once honest and empathic in their comments. They cushioned criticism in respect, even affection. I told them how humanly rare that kind of communication was. I checked my experience against that of a friend who teaches political science here. In over forty years of teaching in a half dozen universities both here and abroad, he told me, he had never had students who treated each other so well. That speaks volumes of good about the Dartmouth experience.”
   Jack Beatty’s fine observation recalls how President Ernest Martin Hopkins, more than a half-century before, expressed his own understanding of what makes Dartmouth unique. At the inauguration of President Dickey, President Hopkins, then stepping down after 29 years at the helm of the College, said “I have become impressed more and more with the sweetness that attached to the relationship between one and another which constituted this great family which we call Dartmouth.”
   I have witnessed myself what President Hopkins called the “sweetness” of our relationships – in so many settings. Just last week, up at the Ravine Lodge, on Mount Moosilauke, I watched with enormous pride as our upperclass women and men went to truly extraordinary lengths to welcome the class of 2013 into the loving embrace of the Dartmouth community.
   The sweetness of Dartmouth.
   The sense of color and proportion as you stand in the center of the Green, taking in Dartmouth Row, Webster Hall, Baker Library. The men and women who for almost two-and-a-half centuries have loved this place. The collegiality among the faculty, and the friendships—the lifelong friendships—that you in the Class of 2013 have already begun to form. And the sound that you will hear if one morning you walk down the hallways of Silsby or past the studios in the Hop—to me, the most beautiful sound of all: the sound of students asking questions.
   By inviting me to serve you as the seventeenth president of Dartmouth College, you’ve given me the highest honor of my life. In return, I offer you this promise, backed by both passion and practicality to the fullest measure of which I am capable: I will do all I can to enable Dartmouth to continue delivering the treasury of its centuries-old dream safely into the hands of those who will shape the future. To send a legion of young people out into the world so inspired by this place that there is no challenge from which they will shrink—all the while remaining true to the abiding sweetness of the College on the Hill.
   Thank you very much.

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