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重庆大学经济学教授,重庆市首席专家(经济学),长江学者特聘教授。诺丁汉大学当代中国学学院创建院长,经济学教授,著名华裔经济学家,复旦大学和西安交通大学特聘讲座教授,全英中国专业团体联和会副主席,联合国开发计划署和世界银行经济顾问, 到过20个亚非欧国家工作。

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驻英大使铁汉式的讲话  

2012-05-31 07:05:04|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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5月28日,中国驻英国大使刘晓明在庆祝中英建交40周年给英国商界领袖的讲话,非常礼貌,非常有逻辑。不过,整个讲话充满了‘火药味’。这种火药味,闻起来不一定舒服,但你不得不叫绝称赞。
   刘晓明是真正的外交家,是中国的铁汉。不管是站在中国人的立场上,还是占在英国人的立场上,我为他叫绝,许多英国人也不得不为他叫绝。
   刘晓明厉害之处,不是他的‘铁血’胸怀,毫无道理的批评英国最近一些让中国人不爽的做法,而是他公开的挑明两国的厉害关系。
   他开门见山,承认40年中央关系的风风雨雨,包括70年代两国恢复大使级的外交关系,80年代中英对香港的和平过渡和回归大陆达成一致意见,最后是90年代到本世纪的双边关系,主要是贸易、投资、科教、文化、艺术和民间交往的双赢。
   在没有明确指出两国最近出现一些不愉快关系之前,刘晓明用了两句英语过去式句子,表述两件已经发生了的事情:(1)中英高层民间对话的开始,(2)中国启动了‘今日英国’项目。
   他还巧妙的用了两句过去式句子来表达本来准备要做,但是没有做的事情:(1)本来准备今年晚些时候要举办的一系列对话和互访活动,(2)本来准备多层次的贸易、投资、金融和文化的双边关系。
   后面这两句过去式,可以说把英语的精髓用到了极致。一般人看来好像是两件即将发生的好事情,听起来非常悦耳。但是,真实的含义却是给中英关系铺上了一层冰,巧妙的、委婉的、但却是非常有杀伤力的对英国政府表明:中国已经取消了这些计划。
   接下来,刘大使话锋一转,毫不客气的说,中央关系,现在正在面对挑战。而产生麻烦的不是中国,而是英国政府的一些言论和做法触发到了中国人民、中国政府的‘外交红线’。
   刘大使把中国外交政策的4条红线明确的划出来:
   (1)    确保基本的国家体系
   (2)    保护国家安全
   (3)    保证国家的主权和领土完整
   (4)    确保可持续和稳定的经济社会发展
   刘晓明指出,不管那个国家和政府触发了这些‘外交政策’红线,中国政府必然坚决抵制和反击,没有客气可言。他的这句话,是真正铁汉的外交辞令,令人叹服。
   刘大使不是简单的划了4条外交红线,他还巧妙的引用19世纪曾经两度当过英国首相的帕尔姆斯通公爵的一句名言,‘国家没有永久的朋友或盟友,只有永远的利益。’
   这个引用,起到三种奇妙的效果:(1)以其人之道还治其人之身,(2)表明自己不仅睿智,而且精通英国人文历史,(3)提醒英国政府,不要自欺欺人,利益才是根本。
   哪么,什么是中英两国的共同利益呢?
   刘晓明简明扼要的列举如下:· (1)增加贸易,(2)增加投资,(3)促进两国经济发展,(4)促进双边教育,文化和科技的合作,(5)加强人民之间的联系。.
   刘晓明认为,政客(politicians)的目光是短浅的,他们只是为了满足短期选民的投票,置国家的长远利益于不顾。政治家(statesman)是有智慧的,有理性的领袖,他们能够以国家的长远利益为重,不以一时的痛快而伤害国家之间长期的合作和发展。
   刘大使更厉害的一手是他明确提出,中英两国有明显的差别,所以,政治家们在做任何事情,都必须考虑这些差别,否则,就可能做出错误的决策和行动。
   这些差别包括:(1)历史,(2)文化,(3)价值观,(4)社会系统,(5)发展阶段。
   .正因为中英两国在这些方面有明显的差别,两国领导人必须互相理解这些差别。中国政府不把这些差别作为两国外交关系的障碍,英国政府也不应该把这些关系当成两国关系的障碍。
   刘大使的这一观点,使他的讲话不仅犀利,而且非常符合逻辑。他不仅具有铁汉外交官的手腕,更具有铁汉外交官的睿智。在流露出锋芒的同时,提出解决问题和破冰前进的建议和方法。
   附件:刘晓明大使5月28日的讲话原文如下。
  
Sir David Brewer,
   Chairman Stephen Perry,
   Chairman Richard Reid,
   Lord Howe,
   Ladies and Gentlemen,
   I am delighted to once again join all you friends from the British business community.
   I want to thank you most warmly for hosting such a grand dinner. This is a very meaningful way to mark forty years of full diplomatic relations between China and UK.
   In this special year for China-UK relations, it is appropriate to refresh old friendships and make new ones. More importantly, it is the time to learn from the past and so create a stronger future. It is the time to build on the progress made and work for greater achievements.
   In this fortieth year of relations I was encouraged we made a good start. Here are some examples:
   · Mr. Li Changchun, member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the Communist Party of China and State Councilor Madame Liu Yandong successfully visited the UK last month. Many of you present here attended the relevant events.
   · The China-UK high level people-to-people dialogue was launched.
   · The UK Now project was unveiled in China.
   · We were preparing for a series of important dialogues and visits scheduled for later this year.
   · We were planning for multiple cooperation and exchanges in trade, investment, finance, cultural and people-to-people links.
   · We look forward to the London Olympic Games becoming another highlight in our bilateral relations.
   These are all positive trends.
   However, there are always some forces working against our joined efforts to build warm relations.
   · These forces dislike the dynamic growth of China-UK relations.
   · They have trifled away the progress made through hard efforts.
   · They have wasted the rare opportunities in our bilateral ties.
   · This is why we now face an undesirable situation in our relations.
   This is not the first time we have encountered difficulties. History shows a variable climate in the past four decades. We have experienced both storms and calm sunshine. Our relationship has never been plain sailing. We have often had to travel on a bumpy road.
   Some of you may recall two months ago a reception at the Chinese Embassy. At that time I mainly talked about achievements in these past 40 years. This evening I will focus on the lessons we should draw from those four decades. Learning lessons from the past will help us avoid roller-coasters in our relations. This approach could remove many bumps from the road we will travel along.
   To drive home my message, I will quote a famous British statesman.
   Lord Palmerston twice served as British Prime Minister in the 19th century. However, he is best remembered for his direction of British foreign policy. One of his famous quotes says:
   "Nations have no permanent friends or allies, they only have permanent interests."
   This indicates that securing 'interests' is an enduring goal of British foreign policy. There is no doubt that interests are critical to the development of any country. Yet interests differ in nature and need to be treated accordingly. This means we must have a good knowledge about two questions:
   · What are the interests involved in China-UK relations?
   · How should we properly handle these interests?
   To address these questions, I believe the following three points are essential.
   First, we should advance common interests. We have success stories in this aspect.
   In the 1970s, opposing world hegemony, and power expansion, served the common interests of China and UK. To advance these interests, our two countries overcame difficulties and established ambassadorial relations.
   In the 1980s, maintaining stability and prosperity in Hong Kong represented our common interests. Through negotiations, we signed the Joint Declaration over Hong Kong. This milestone document laid a solid foundation for the final solution for the future of Hong Kong. Lord Howe was one of those who made important contributions to this historical achievement.
   Today, common interests of China and UK cover broader areas.
   At a bilateral level, our shared interests lie in:
   · Increasing trade.
   · Expanding two-way investment.
   · Boosting growth of both economies.
   · Stepping up cooperation in education, culture and science and technology
   · And strengthening people-to-people links.
   At a global level, the world economy is full of uncertainties. The international landscape is going through profound changes. So, our common interests are defined as:
   · Working together for world peace, stability and prosperity
   · And jointly tackling common challenges facing all mankind.
   China-UK relations can only keep growing when both nations are truly committed to a Sino-UK comprehensive strategic partnership and common interests of the two countries.
   My second point is that we should respect each other's interests. China and UK are different in many ways. We are different in:
   · History.
   · Culture.
   · Values.
   · Social system
   · And development stage
   It should be no surprise that we have different national interests.
   As a developing country, China considers the following as its core interests:
   · Preserving its basic state system.
   · Defending its national security.
   · Safeguarding its sovereignty and territorial integrity
   · And ensuring sustained and stable economic and social development.
   These interests are the 'red line' of China's foreign policy. They shall not be crossed by any foreign country.
   Any attempt to support and connive at anti-China separatist forces hurts China's core interests. Whatever the excuses, such moves will meet firm opposition from China.
   China will not do anything to undermine Britain's national interests. So it is perfectly reasonable that Britain should also respect China's national interests. If that is not the case then bilateral ties will surely suffer.
 My third point is that we should uphold overarching interests.
   National interests are overarching because they concern the people of entire country. So, what are in the best interests of Chinese and British people?
   I believe that our two peoples are eager to see greater progress in China-UK relations and more fruitful cooperation between us in all fields. This certainly is the goal of all you business leaders gathered here this evening. Through cooperation, we will be able to expand trade, increase investment, create jobs, and promote economic growth. These will bring benefits to all of our peoples. Working towards these achievements make up the overarching interests of China and UK.
   Political leaders should at all time uphold the overarching interests of the two countries. They should always support the larger interests of bilateral relations. They should follow the will of the people and advance well-being of all the people.
   What political leaders should not do is to pander to minority views. They should not please small groups at the sacrifice of overall interests of the country. This is what distinguishes statesmen from politicians.
   In China-UK relations, we need statesmen who have strategic vision and keep in mind the larger picture. We do not need short-sighed politicians who are blinded by immediate interests and obsession with votes. What we need to serve is overarching national interests, not interests of interest groups, not interests of some forces.
   Friends from the British business community:
   You have produced 'icebreakers' in our bilateral relations. You have long been active participants and firm promoters of China-UK business ties. Growth of China-UK relations needs the support of thriving economic cooperation. It also needs the guarantee of a sound political relationship. In the absence of mutual political trust, there will be no stable bilateral relationship. In turn, deepening economic cooperation will be a 'mission impossible.'
   As China-UK political relationship is now facing difficulty, I do hope that you friends from British business community will:
   · Carry forward the spirit of 'icebreakers'.
   · Leverage your influence and play your part in creating a favorable political environment for economic cooperation.
   · And help bring China-UK relations back to a normal track.
   This is my expectation of you!
   It is also our shared interest!
   Thank you!

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